Wolbachia Bacterial Parasite | The Sex Changer

Wolbachia Bacterial Parasite

Wolbachia Bacterial Parasite

What is the wolbachia bacteria? Wolbachia bacterial parasite is an intracellular bacteria, mainly affecting species of arthropods, some nematodes and a significant number of insects. Wolbachia bacterial parasite may be a highly common microbial parasite as well as being most commonly known reproductive parasite.

Complex Relationship with the Host

Being a parasite the relationship with the host is often complicated or complex. There are some mentioned cases where the relationship has a symbiotic pattern along with being parasitic. As there are some species of the hosts of the wolbachia bacterial parasite that without the presence of the colony of the parasite may not be able to even survive let alone multiply.

Organs Affected by Wolbachia

A number of different organs are affected by the bacteria known as what is wolbachia bacteria. Although the main organs that are infected with this bacteria are the reproductive organs for example the ovaries and the testes of the hosts. The females of the infected hosts can transfer the infection to their progeny. As with any species of organism, the wolbachia bacterial parasite maximizes its spread by changing the capabilities of reproduction in their hosts.

What is a Babesosis / Babesia Infection

The Mosquito Connection

There are some species of mosquitoes that spread different viruses like chikungunya, Zika and dengue. These include the Aedes species of the mosquitoes, which are quite common especially in the United States. This wolbachia bacterial parasite is not found naturally in this mosquito. These are introduced by scientists into the mosquito eggs, and these become wolbachia mosquito. Now when these male wolbachia mosquitoes mate with wild female mosquitoes (without Wolbachia) their eggs do not hatch.

Wolbachia Treatment

The so called wolbachia treatment is that these male wolbachia mosquitoes when released in the area prevent the population from spreading which is attributed to the non-hatching of the eggs when wild female (without wolbachia bacterial parasite) breed with the wolbachia male. Hence the prevalence of the diseases spread through these mosquitoes species is reduced.

Production of Wolbachia Mosquito

The production of the wolbachia species of the mosquito is through the introduction of the wolbachia bacterial parasite into the eggs of the aegypti mosquitoes. The new mosquitoes that are now bred in these eggs will have wolbachia bacterial parasite.

These parasites affect the reproductive pattern and only males of this breed is released after the sorting of the genders. Although females are used for breeding purposes in the laboratory. This is how these are mass produced after the wolbachia treatment. This is called the metodo wolbachia or wolbachia method.

Cytoplasmic Incompatibility

Cytoplasmic incompatibility is the reason why these eggs do not become viable. Cytomplasmic incompatibility is the name given to the phenomenon where the male sperm cells and the female egg cells are not compatible enough to form viability of egg cells.  This happens in a wide range of insects which are infected by this type of wolbachia bacterial parasite.

Horsehair Worm Nematomorpha in Human Diagnosis

Since affect does not pass from the male to the next generation due to the cytoplasmic incompatibility, so the females are kept for the horizontal transmission of the parasite to the next generation. And since the wolbachia mosquito has the parasite transferred maternally, the host and parasite relationship becomes quite intimate. Although it does not affect the health of the host significantly, the overall impact is only on the reproductive organs.

World Mosquito Program Wolbachia

The World Mosquito Program wolbachia is a program that aims to prevent the illnesses like yellow fever, chikugunya, Zika and dengue. Through the World Mosquito Program wolbachia the transmission is prevented of such mosquito borne diseases. This has been proven and monitoring shows that where the wolbachia mosquito population at a higher level and it appears to be self-sustaining. The viral transmission reduces significantly.

The first batch of the wolbachia mosquito was released in 2011 and since then different studies are showing that risk of transmission of different viruses can be greatly decreased by the use of the wolbachia mosquito. Other than that there are different trials conducted at multiple locations that acknowledge that the World Mosquito Program Wolbachia is not only effective but also safe as well, that prevents the disease spread in cities and entire regions. And they claim that the metodo wolbachia or the wolbachia method is a safe and effective way to reduce the burden of the mosquito borne diseases in the population.

Around the World

The project is active around the world in more than 10 countries and their wolbachia mosquito (the wolbachia carrying mosquitoes) had reached around 6 million people and this is the number reported by December 2020. The program is running through regional hubs and currently has 02 (two) hubs, one in Australia and the other in Vietnam. In Melbourne and Ho Chi Minh City respectively.  They have not stopped there, they are looking to establish another center or hub in the Americas probably in Panama. The global operations are carried out through the regional centers or hubs which then implement the core operations locally.

Heartworms Infection and Prevention

And this all started from the discovery of bacterium wolbachia in 1924, when researchers discovered this bacterium. And this is where the journey of the world mosquito program wolbachia actually started.

 In the US (United States)

Not only the world mosquito program wolbachia, but in 2017, even an affliated company to google came forward with their plan for a 20 million wolbachia mosquito release. This release was to occur in California as they tried to combact and decrease the disease burden of the Zika virus in the region.

Also in 2017 a company was registered known as the mosquito mate; which was registered with the EPA (US Environment Protection Agency). The aim was to release the Wolbachia mosquitoes in around 20 US States as well as the District of Columbia.

Other than the US, the Agency for the Environment of Singapore has also teamed with the Google affiliate. This would be a research into the development and later on deployment of a more efficient and a more advanced way to release the wolbachia mosquitoes. They also plan to study and suppress the Aegypti Mosquito population in the urban areas so as to fight dengue.

Guinea worm disease eradication | Dracunculus

Guinea worm disease eradication

Guinea worm disease eradication is an important issue for most of the tropical African and Asian regions even in the tropical South America and West Indies, as this is where Dragon worm is found. Due to the parasite’s invasion of a variety of mammals it is important for the people to be worried about the guinea worm disease eradication. There are many different forms of worm sicknesses or worm disease, and dracunculiasis guinea worm disease is one of them.

Belonging to the phylum Nematoda; dracunculus parasite (Dracunculus Medinensis) also known as the Dragon Worm is a parasite that affects humans and mammals as well. The disease caused by the dracunculus parasite is called dracunculiasis guinea worm disease or dracunculiasis simply.

Dracunculus Parasite

Also called the guinea disease, the dragon worm is a roundworm, and it penetrates the gut and travel to the connective tissue. The guinea worm larvae or the new guinea worm larvae as they are known have a four stage development cycle and this is all before the formation of adult dracunculus worm. The dracunculus worm can grow to a length of 80cm, and are among the largest nematodes known species.

These new guinea worm have a dual host cycle, which involves an intermediate host. These hosts are  where the infective guinea worm larvae develop. Then these vertebrates or aquatic crustaceans are ingested by the definitive host (humans or mammals) through drinking unfiltered water, containing these copepods.

Guinea worm larvae

The guinea worm larvae do not come from eggs but the dragon worm female give birth to live larvae. This is the reason that guinea disease causing dracunculus parasite is called ovoviviparous, as it does not lay eggs.

In humans, the guinea worm infestation cause blisters with are painful. Guinea worm larvae are released through these blisters. It may come as a surprise to you, but this guinea disease is quite well known. The staff with serpent logo that has been adopted as the official symbol of medicine reflects the same dracunculus worm along with a stick winding it, this depicts the traditional removal techniques at the time.

Historical instances

Guinea worm infestation in humans also have a history of being recorded earlier in history books. Described to the likes of little snakes by scholars both Roman and Greek, they even have been described as fiery serpents in some texts.


Guinea worm disease or Guinea disease occur in desert and the semi – desert areas of the Middle-East, India, Brazil and the sub – Sahara of the Africa. But mainly in areas which are not urban i.e. rural areas. In these areas, due to the scarcity of water resources the water that is available is from ponds of the rainy seasons or from wells drawn from the soil. Due to World Health Organization’s preventive campaigns the estimated prevalence of guinea worm disease has been markedly reduced.

Affected Species

This worm disease (Guinea disease) has been reported occasionally in mammals like horses, dogs, cattle and cats. Even species of crocodiles, some water birds, turtles and snakes have also been described as affected by this worm sickness. Other species of this disease have also been known to affect raccoons, carnivores, possums or muskrats in the Americas as well.

The Tongue-eating parasite | Cymothoa Exigua

Site of Infestation

The larvae that are ingested arrive at the connective tissue by penetrating the gut. They migrate to the inguinal and/ or axillary regions after invading the subcutaneous connective tissues. The female dracunculus parasite then migrate to the locations in the peripheral subsurface from the deep connective tissues. Especially in the legs or arms (extremities), this does not mean that they cannot occur anywhere else, but the extremities are the places where they occur most commonly.

Signs and Symptoms

Until the mature female dragon worms travel to the skin and form a papule or a blister, these usually are symptomless or asymptomatic, even though they can grow to very large sizes. When traveling these may produce some localized swelling, or some allergic reactions like diarrhea, dizziness, nausea and rashes. There are generally two types of infectious lesions; one that occur subcutaneously or some that are around dead worms (deep abscesses) this involves many inflammatory cells that become blister after calcification (papules), this is how they directly release larvae, as there are no eggs. Sometimes these skin lesions may also involve redness, intense pain (burning sensation) as well as ulceration.

Eye Worm in Human | Loa Loa Filariasis

Guinea Worm Removal

The guinea worm removal is a process where cool water immersion is used to relieve the symptoms of this worm sickness. Due to the hypersensitivity reaction, which is induced from the larval deposition in the tissues, blisters are formed. These blister then burst and parts of the adult worms emerge out, this is the way these tissue dwelling parasites get expelled from the host. In some cases of uncomplicated infections the lesion only lasts until the worm is completely removed from the body.

Secondary infection

But some cases do get involved with secondary infection, which is usually bacterial. These secondary infections cause a number of different sequelae of events which may make this infection and guinea worm disease treatment complicated. These may involve fibrous ankylosis, different disseminated infections, chronic ulceration and contractures of tendons.


There are some very old and traditional methods of guinea worm removal. This involves the slow winding of the dragon worm on a stick several centimeters a day for some weeks. It is important to avoid force as excess of force might break the worm and complicate the infections and guinea disease.

There is a surgical procedure involving the removal of the dracunculus worm when present in the superficial sites of the body. If the involvement of deeper tissues and fascia is present, surgical treatment may be difficult to perform. Guinea worm disease treatment through some anthelminthics have not been proven efficacious, but some molecules like mebendazole, albendazole or even metronidazole have shown some encouragement, and plays and important role in Guinea worm disease eradication process.

Please consult your treating physician before taking any medication.


There are some preventive measures that can break the transmission cycle, like the elimination of copepod by reduction of the contamination. Educating the public through different programs, and purification of water by boiling or filteration. Even the treatment of local water supplies can reduce the prevalence dramatically.

Eye Worm in Human | Loa Loa Filariasis

eye worm

A parasitic eye worm, also known as African eye worm, is known as Loa loa. The infection is called loa loa filariasis. This eye worm parasite is transferred to humans by the bite of deerflies or mango flies, of the genus Chrysops. These flies get infected by biting and sucking the blood of an infected person first. These are most commonly found in the rain forests of Central and West Africa. People traveling from these areas, when bitten with these flies are usually affected. This is a relatively very rare disease. But before we get on the description of the Eye worm or Eye Parasite let’s first look at what are parasites?


Parasites are organism that derives food and nutrition and also lives on the host and thus depends completely on the host. At the expense of the host the parasite derives nutrition and actually survives on the host’s food and shelter. The parasite effectively deprives the host of the nutrition that it needs.

These parasites typically live in or on the bodies of the host organism. Some parasites are also harmful, since they can cause infections. If they are inside the body, such organisms then reach their destination organ, eyes are just such organs i.e. Eye parasites. There can be different types of parasites; Protozoa, helminthes or Ectoparasites.

Symptoms of Eye Parasites

General symptoms of eye parasites are not always very apparent. And they may also be difficult to understand and recognize. These may include inflammation of the eyes, or redness, blurry vision, sensitivity to light, excessive tear production, pain in the eyes, crusting eyelids, retinal scarring, and also blindness or loss of vision

The signs and symptoms of eye parasites are not very apparent in most people, and usually do not even present themselves for days or even months after inoculation. Although with loiasis or African eye worm infection, the most commonly presented are swellings which are non-painful, these may be accompanied with itchiness, around the swelling. These are not persistent, but usually transient meaning that these swellings come and go. The Loa Loa filariasis symptoms may be swellings, itchiness and irritation.

There may be worm in eye symptoms; that is development of an eye worm crawling inside the surface of the eye. There may also be other symptoms like worm crawling under the skin, or swelling in and around the joints, or itching in different parts of the body. These symptoms may present along with high levels of eosinophils in the blood, which can be seen in blood reports. There are different eye parasites in humans, some of which are given below:

Eye Parasites in Humans

Other than loa loa filariasis there are other organisms that can be eye parasites in humans. Acanthamoeba may be such an organism. This organism can effect vision and can be dangerous. Transmission usually is through direct contact in the marine and fresh water environments in which it is present. Another Eye parasite may be toxoplasmosis, present in mostly animal waste especially among pets for example cats. Its transmission is through ingestion, although a thing of concern is that the parasite can be passed in pregnancy from mother to the fetus. As is typical of eye parasites normally do not present with signs or symptoms. Immuno- compromised individuals especially children develop eye worm infections. But if left untreated, they can cause severe scarring or even vision loss.


Seeing worms in eyes would be a terrifying experience, but that’s what happens with Loiasis. This is caused by a helminth parasite, as discussed before mostly found in Africa. T Endemic to the West and Central Africa Loiasis infection is from the filarial nematode called Loa loa. The infection is acquired from the infected fly bite, this parasite is then transferred to the body where it develops and then migrates to different areas and tissues. The produced larvae are called microfilariae. Not only the adult worm, but the larvae as well can cause issues in the eye or vision for example impaired movement of the eyes, sensitivity to the light, vision problems and eye pain.


Another eye parasite or human eye worm can be Gnathostomiasis, this particular helminth or human eye worm is found mostly some parts of South America or Central America, and Africa, Southeast Asia, Japan and Thailand. The transmission of infection of this eye infesting worm is through the mouth that is by ingesting uncooked food or raw food like fish or meat. The eye infesting worm or eye parasite then goes to different parts of your body, eyes included from the gastrointestinal tract. This parasite in eye symptoms can affect the eyes vision partially or even in some cases fully.

River blindness (onchocerciasis)

Onchocerciasis is also an eye worm which is a helminth. These parasites are found in the South and Central Americas, the Middle East and some parts of Africa. This is often also known as river blindness. The larvae enter the body through the bite of a blackfly which is already infected or exposed to the parasite. This eye parasite will burrow into the skin and then develop to adults, where they will reproduce so that they can enter into different organs and tissues. If they reach the eyes, the parasite in eye symptoms maybe that it may cause blindness.

Treating Eye Infections

As is the case with any disease the treatment depends upon the type of infection. Or in this case upon the type of parasite, whether eye parasite removal may be necessary or some eye drops to kill parasites would be a better approach. Although different types of medications including topical and oral are available depending again upon the type of infection and parasite. Diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin, or pyrimethamine usually the medicines used for such eye parasites. While some eye worms can be treated through such medicines. But in some extreme cases eye parasite removal may be the recommended approach. Such is the treatment of eye parasites including loa loa filariasis, river blindness,and or gnathostomiasis.

Worst Parasites for Humans | Worms in People

Worst Parasites for Humans

What can be the worst parasites for humans? Parasites are organisms that are the ultimate opportunists. They survive on the nutrition of the host, and they do not contribute anything to it. In humans, they live off the food and nutrition of the human feeds on and they thrive on it. Worst parasites in the world are those parasites can’t even survive without a host, rather a human host. Meaning if the host for some reason dies; the parasite will also die, since they will not be able to derive nutrition anymore from the host, so eventually it will die.

There are many parasites that can be considered worst parasites in the world or worst human parasites, let’s see if the following list can be considered the same


Ticks are the one of the most well- known external worst parasites for humans. Since they live outside the body that is on the surface of the body and do not enter the body; they are known as ‘ectoparasite’. The problem with the tick is the bite of the tick, through which a number of harmful diseases can be caused, e.g. rickettsia and Lyme disease.

Although the tick bites can be considered harmless, they can cause trouble if they transmit some sort of infection. Mostly they won’t even be noticeable, if no symptoms are visible. But there is almost always a chance of some sort of allergic reactions to occur. Some people might be allergic to the ticks’ bite, which may become quite dangerous for the human host. In some instances they can also become deadly if not treated immediately.


There are a lot of people who contract malaria the world over, millions of cases every year. However the world over everyone believes mistakenly that malaria is an infection caused by a bacteria or a virus. Although caused by a single celled organism; plasmodium, this is not a bacteria or a virus. Plasmodium is a protozoa species which is also a parasite. It is transferred to humans through an infected mosquitoes bite. Plasmodium may not appear to be worst parasites but the harm generated from the disease that they cause can certainly be considered to be one of the worst. The disease malaria although treatable is not preventable from vaccination, but you can take measures to prevent it through various means like spraying, using mosquito repellants, nettings etc.

Worm infestations

Various types of worms can be a reason for problems in the human hosts of worm parasites. There are many types for example tapeworms, roundworms, hookworms. There are some types of pinworms also known as threadworms, which are more common in some countries like Australia. Nevertheless these worms in humans or infestations as the infections of worms in humans are called, are a huge problem and do pose a health risk. There are some significant symptoms of the infestation of worms in humans. These diseases of worms in people start with a feeling of pain in the abdomen, which can be along with nausea and vomiting, diarrhea is also a feature, along with bloating and gases. An unexplained weight loss, also with a prolonged sense of fatigue. The abdominal pain can be with tenderness in the same region.


Having uncooked food or drinking contaminated water may make you susceptible to tapeworm infection. Tapeworms are one of the different types of flatworms. They are usually transferred to our bodies in their eggs or immature states. Inside the body, especially in the gastrointestinal tract these forms of larvae or eggs get the environment that is considered ideal for the development and growth of this parasite. Since being a parasite, the nature of the parasite is to derive their nutrition from their hosts, so they may not seem to be harmful but they do cause of risk to health. As their nutrition comes from the host, the host is usually deprived of nutrition and can cause low immunity. This may well become a health risk in itself as it makes the host susceptible to numerous infections. That includes tapeworms on the list of one of the worst parasites for humans.

Worms in Human Poop

The diagnosis of worm infestations is done along with the symptoms of the disease. Health Care providers (HCP) usually order a stool test to look for parasites in human stool, which generally is the right place to look for signs of the infestations. These worms since are present in the GI Tract i.e. the Gastro Intestinal Tract, are then tracked through the eggs or larvae that can be found in the stool or even some segments of the worm. So, literally there are worms in human poop to look for in such a case. Additionally, the HCP can also request blood culture to see if there are some specific antigens present in the blood that are there whenever there is a worm infestation.

Roundworms in humans

While traveling in different parts of the worlds, there is always a risk of contracting different kinds of infections. At times in different countries people are also exposed to different types of parasites like roundworms as well. This is due to the lack of hygiene and lack of proper sanitation in those countries. Most of the time the tourists try to have the best of the world by not just visiting exotic places, but also eating the most exotic and popular food, which might not always have proper sanitation or hygiene.  Symptoms of roundworms in humans may mimic symptoms of indigestion e.g. high fever and diarrhea.

Hookworms in Humans

Approximately 600 million people are suffering worldwide from the helminthes, as they are known the hookworms in humans and is considered one of the worst parasites for humans. Usually due to poor living conditions these infestations occur.

These are soil transmitted and are parasitic as they live in the small intestine which they achieve adult form. These hookworms in humans can be a cause of concern. At times, there are some different issues in the infected individual which may cause issues of lung, heart or eyes or some neurological issues as well. But these are very easily dealt with by medicine. If there are symptoms (as mostly) there are no symptoms at all, may lead to loss of protein in the body or loss of blood (anemia).

But this infestation is very easily dealt with by medication when diagnosed by the HCP (the health care provider). In this case mostly it the family doctor, who prescribes the medicine to the whole family, as they are also at risk of exposure.

Heartworms Infection and Prevention


Heartworms are actually parasitic organisms which can block blood or some vessels of blood, even major blood vessels. This happens when animals such as dogs are exposed to this parasite. Dirofilaria immitis is a parasitic worm, that can cause problems in such animals. The reason why they are called heartworms is that they can cause blood vessels to block. If a dog or pet develops the disease caused by this organism and then it is not treated, it can cause some major harm to the animal’s organs or even may lead to death. If your pet; dog is heartworm positive it can develop the disease through the presence of heartworm larvae in the blood which then leads to the blockage of vessels

Heartworms in Pets

Heartworm disease is a disease in pets not only in the US, but a lot of different countries of the world.  This is potentially dangerous and in some cases fatal as well. This parasite that is known as Dirofilaria immitis are from a species of worms (heartworms) that live in the blood, lungs or heart of animals. These animals may dogs, ferrets or even dogs, but these are not the only species of animals in which these worms live. Other mammals like foxes or coyotes are also carriers of this worm, or heartworm positive. Heartworm disease in cats is as common as it is in dogs. The affected animals can have severe damage to their organs such as the heart and lungs. And can cause heart failure or lung disease in these animals. Mostly it occurs in such animals that are living near the urban areas.

Heartworms in Humans

Although very rare, but some cases of heartworm in humans have also been reported. These heartworms do not even live through the skin of the humans. And even if they do get into the blood stream, they are not able to mature. Since they are not able to mature, they eventually get killed. So even in the rare cases that these heartworms have been reported, they are not a serious disease but they may cause some symptoms like discomfort or pain or some other variable symptom.

Heartworms in Dogs

It seems very likely that dogs are a natural parasite host for Dirofilaria immitis the worm that causes heartworms in dogs. The heartworm positive dog may have a host of this worm within its body whose number might be in the many hundreds. If a dog is heartworm positive; this means that the heartworm disease is widespread in the dog’s body. The parasite thrives inside the dogs bodies mature and become adults, reproduce and also produce offspring there. And if this heartworm disease is left untreated, it may cause long lasting damage to the dog’s body. This may include damage to the different organs like the arteries, heart and the lungs. So, even if the disease is treated, the quality of life and health will still be restrictive although the heartworm will be gone.

Just as various other other deadly diseases, heartworms can  spread from dog host to dog host by feces. The deadly parasite can cause severe damage to those host, which makes it crucial to treat your pet as soon as possible. through preventive medication heartworms can be avoided.

Heartworms in dog poop is also a reality, these heartworms can be transferred through their poop, i.e. their feces. As this disease can cause serious harm to your animal, it is extremely important that it is either prevented or treated as soon as possible. So the best treatment in this regards is the prevention of this disease. The best option is prevent this disease from developing, if not prevention then it should be treated in the earliest stages of its development. The best thing to use in this instance is preventive medicine. To be sure that the disease does not develop in the first place or if it does then it is treated prematurely that is the larvae are not able to develop and cause the disease.

Heartworms in Cats

A question that is in the minds of the cat owners is, is heartworm in cats contagious? Another more pertinent question is heartworm disease in cats common? Well, in the cat’s body the heartworms are not able to survive like it does in dogs, so cats are not considered to be a natural host of heartworms. Hence they are similarly not as likely to get infections as well unlike dogs. The route through which heartworms can affect cats is by being bitten by infected mosquito.

 A cat that has been bitten by infected mosquito, will have the larvae of the heartworms in the blood. These heartworm larvae then enter blood vessels and other organs e.g. lungs. This process of this disease is several months long, and can cause these worms to wreak havoc in the body of the cat and can also grow to be foot-long worms.

Treatment of Heartworms in animals

There have been many studies on how dogs respond to different taste of medicines. Especially when given for diseses like heartworms etc. Heartworm heartgard plus dogs for is really good, especially in small pups of older the 6 weeks. This will not only treat and prevent heartworms but some other parasites like roundworms and hookworms.

Tips for Prevention of Heartworms

BITE PREVENTION: Avoiding exposure to mosquitoes will reduce the risk of mosquito bites. Try to eliminate water that is standing, as this is a suitable environment for mosquitoes to thrive in. Try and limit going out in the dusk times and dawn as well, as most mosquitoes are seen to be active at this time of the day.


Usage of some medication will effective prevent the heartworms larvae to mature, even if the animal has been exposed to the heartworm disease. And by the elimination of these new formed larvae the heartworm disease is prevented.


Regularly getting your pet tested will not only keep the animal healthy, this will also improve the condition of it. As the disease can be prevented before any serious disease can pose a danger.

The Tongue-eating parasite | Cymothoa Exigua

Tongue-eating parasite

Before we start talking about the nasty Tongue-eating parasite (Cymothoa Exigua). There is a large number of animal species in this world called parasites. These can be single celled organisms as well multi celled organisms. These creatures actually live on the body of other species, taking nourishment from that body upon which they are living. Such a relationship is called host parasite relationship. In this relationship the parasite depends upon the host solely and completely for food and nourishment. Many times they do not survive and die with the host, if malnourishment leads to death As they cannot survive on their own, their survival depends upon the nourishment from the host. These parasites can only survive on the host. If the host dies, there is very limited survival for the parasite; such is the nature of the parasite.

A Tongue-eating parasite

A type of fish tongue parasites known as Cymothoa exigua is a creature like a lobster of crab or an isopod. This is a marine animal or louse (a wingless parasitic insect that lives on the skin of the animals e.g. lice). The males and females are different in size that the males can grow to half an inch and the females can grow to almost an inch in length. Probably it is the only parasite that can replace an entire organ and keep functioning in its place. It replaced the whole tongue and replaces itself in its place. Aptly named, the tongue eating parasite in some fish species replaces and starts acting like the tongue.

A parasite that replaces fish tongue

You must be wondering what parasite eats fish tongue? These organisms called cymothoa exigua  and they are very versatile and can start acting like hermaphrodites. This usually means that they can change their sex in some time during their life cycle. Being a parasite that replaces fish tongue, it attaches itself to the blood vessels that connect to the tongue. Causing the organ to fall off, and it replaces and attaches itself to the vessels, nourishing its own blood supply through the host. Their life cycle begins in the fish’s gills. By attaching themselves to the gills of the fishes they stay there till they are mature. This process is continued by the changing of the sex.

What does a tongue eating louse do

You must be wondering what does a tongue eating louse do? Well after the maturation in the gills, the louse changes its sex and becomes a female from a male. This is why these tongue eating louse are known as hermaphrodites. (A hermaphrodite is a creature that shows both the characteristics of a male and female). This happens after it has developed or matured. From the gills of the fish, tongue eating louse then reaches towards the tongue and attaches itself there. Since it is a parasite that replaces fish tongue, it cuts off the blood supply of the fish tongue.

Does the tongue eating louse kill the fish

The Tongue-eating parasite (Cymothoa exigua) places itself in to the fishes mouth and attaches itself there. But to finish off its connection to the fish’s mouth and become functional, the tongue eating louse penetrates through a its biting power. This gives it the capacity to suck blood off the fish’s tongue. This creates the parasitic relationship of the host i.e. the victim and the tongue eating parasite or louse. With time the sucking of  the blood off the tongue of the fish leads to the atrophy of the tongue. And as a result, with time the tongue will now fall off.

Now at this stage the Tongue-eating parasite (cymothoa exigua) starts it’s life as the tongue of the fish and works functionally as a parasite that replaces fish tongue. Now if you’re wondering does the tongue eating louse kill the fish, well no. The fish’s nourishment may be reduced and over a period of time this malnourishment might seem like this is leading the fish towards death. But this does not appear to be the case and the tongue eating louse does not kill the fish.

When the process of the attachment of the tongue eating parasite is complete, this louse is now in a permanent position holding the organ, the tongue which is now completely destroyed. The pictures of this and even the description is horrifying, but this is not deadly to the fish. It does not kill the fish. In fact the fish now has a new tongue which is unlike a replaced organ; alive. This is now a crustacean living in the fish’s mouth. A false tongue but functionally it is difficult to believe how the fish is able to eat and survive with such a large creature living in its mouth. This is wonder of nature that fish is able to thrive in such an environment as well.

Cymothoa exigua in humans

Although a clear case of science fiction stories, cymothoa exigua in humans does not occur and humans cannot get cymothoa exigua. Although it seems like a good movie story and many have made such films on this pattern. And no matter how much we would to hear a story of tongue eating parasite human, it simply is science fiction. Although there are some cases of tongue eating parasite found in a tuna can, and they have widely been circulated, but fact of the matter is even if a tongue eating parasite found in a tuna can it rarely can cause harm to humans, although have to admit. Must have been quite an experience. So this is the answer to the question can humans get tongue eating louse.


Although Tongue-eating parasite (Cymothoa exigua) in humans does not occur, it does occur in a lot of places where it affects the fishes there. Quite a lot actually, for example in parts of Atlantic ocean, Gulf of Ecuador. This tongue eating louse seems to affect about seven to eight species of fishes, even red snapper are often the victim of this parasitic isopod or fish tongue parasites. Red Snapper especially in the Costa Rica region, Colarado and the Jordanian region.

Read more about this nasty parasite here

Zinc Benefits | What is Zinc Good For?

zinc benefits

Benefits of Zinc

The human body needs many nutrients to grow and remain healthy. For these there are some minerals as well that are vital to the body. There are many minerals that are important to the human body. There are some zinc benefits for men and there are some zinc benefits for men. Zinc is a vital mineral that is required by the body. Unlike many other minerals zinc is found in almost all parts of the body as it is present in the cells. Not very far behind Iron, which is the most abundant mineral in human body.

There are many bodily functions that include digestion, conduction of the nerves and also helps the immune system of the body, as well as assisting in the senses of smell and taste and healing the wounds of the body. Other functions supported by Zinc are inability of the body to produce proteins out of which DNA can be generated. Development of children especially in terms of growth and advancement. Additionally, there is also evidence of it being an antioxidant. An antioxidant is a substance that slows the ageing of things, by preventing or slowing the damage of ageing. This is done through the destruction of free radicals.

Body Requirement

Since it is required by the human body, and is not produced in the body, generally these nutrients have to be taken through food sources. These food sources may be as diverse as beans, meat, chicken and fortified cereals or even through supplements. Especially through supplements, if diet does not contain enough zinc nutrient.

Zinc and Testosterone

There are have different researches conducted to find the relationship between zinc and testosterone. And it has been found recently that zinc and testosterone levels are inter-related. There are some links between zinc and people consider zinc as testosterone booster. These might be the benefits of zinc sexually. Zinc supplements can help increase testosterone levels in males as well as zinc supplements can also help increase levels in females. There are some reviews that also show a negative relationship of fertility and low levels of zinc.

Zinc and Testosterone in Females

There are many zinc benefits for women. Taking Zinc regularly, studies have shown keeps levels of testosterone in plasma increased in women. Zinc and testosterone in females are related that is it related with increased plasma levels of testosterone. This little micronutrient works in the favor of testosterone as opposed to estrogen and that leads to more virility and arousal. Taking more zinc may lead to higher testosterone levels.

Zinc benefits for skin

There are some evidences found for zinc and hormonal acne and its relationship. Not only that it can reduce the soreness and the redness caused by hormonal acne including cases of mild to moderate or moderate to severe acne. Zinc benefits for skin are not only limited to reducing the symptoms but also the scars or appearance of such acne scars. There is evidence of zinc for skin healing, and not only acne, but in cases of wounds there have been cases reported with improvement in healing with wounds with elevated levels of zinc. This is because of the importance of zinc as a micronutrient in the different processes of wound healing. So not only zinc has a role in wound healing but also has benefits for skin. And this is evidenced in multiple occasions by multiple authors.

Can Zinc Help with Hormonal Acne

There are many evidences that conclude that answer the question that can zinc help with hormonal acne. People taking supplemental zinc that may be through topical application or through an oral supplement find improvement in skin and acne. Although high amounts of zinc in the body can be harmful but application of topical lotions that may contain zinc can bring about the small amounts needed by the skin and body.

Zinc Benefits for Rheumatoid Arthritis

There is some evidence present that shows in inflammatory conditions like some chronic disorders for example Rheumatoid Arthritis zinc may have a positive role in improving symptoms. Rheumatoid Arthritis is a disease characterized by inflamed joints typically appearing deformed. And this deformation occurs in a symmetrical pattern. In worse cases the disease may also affect additional organ systems. But Zinc benefits for rheumatoid arthritis is documented, and show that improved zinc levels in the body may alleviate the symptoms of this disease or moreover improve the condition.

Zinc Effects in Diarrhea

The benefits of Zinc in diarrhea are such that all medical societies or even the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends taking it in the condition. Diarrhea is a condition that when the body is unable to retain food and water. Typically, this condition is characterized by multiple watery stools. A common risk is of dehydration, in such a condition. Often considered a serious situation in children especially in those regions where malnutrition is common.

In such places where malnutrition is endemic, children are often undernourished and diarrhea poses fatal outcomes. In such places, it has been shown in multiple instances that taking zinc orally reduces the severity of diarrhea especially in children. Since it is believed a zinc deficiency can result in severe diarrhea and replacement may help reduce it in children affected by it in such regions.

Effect of Zinc in Vision

With age, the eyes’ ability of vision decreases, this is related to the macular changes or degeneration which is age related and not related to any disease. This causes vision loss, and creates issues with the quality of life in individuals with such changes. Taking zinc is said to have helped in vision and also helped in the sensory perception of vision in the eyes on a place called retina. Retina is responsible for the sensation of vision. Zinc may help in retaining this function and if not prevent but delay the progression of such degeneration which is age related.

Zinc Side Effects

Zinc although is generally held safe but as we all know that too much of a good thing can also be harmful. There is an optimum level of zinc in the body according to the mass of the individuals. Varying from optimum levels usually cause issues. As in deficiency such a situation can be harmful, higher levels can also be cause issues which should be avoided. As evidenced, if Zinc is taken in high doses for a longer period of time it may cause issues like neurological issues for example weakness and numbness in the peripheries. Although zinc relieves diarrhea; in higher quantities zinc can cause indigestion, nausea or vomiting and in some cases diarrhea as well. It can cause lower levels of copper in the body, which may be reason for neurological issues. The best zinc supplement would be a zinc supplement which is not more than 40 mg per day. Anything beyond 40 mg carries a risk of higher dosage of zinc and which may cause issues that are not intended when taking such a supplement of zinc. There are types of zinc supplements available in the market. Some are available in different forms for example nasal or oral type. Physicians should be consulted for the optimum doses of this micronutrient.

What is a Babesosis / Babesia Infection


A Disease of Concern

There are some infections that are not caused by organisms that we hear about mostly, like the flu these are not transferred from one human to another human. Some organisms other than viruses and bacteria reside inside insects. These insects when they bite humans, they transfer these microorganisms inside, which then cause diseases.

An example of these can be malarial parasite transferred to humans through the bite of a female anopheles mosquito. Another one can be babesiosis which is a relatively uncommon infectious disease which is caused by a protoazoal species called Babesia. Protozoa is a type of single celled microorganism that is different from bacterial. This disease is common in animals, but rare cases do occur in humans with babesiosis infections.

Human babesiosis is a tickborne disease. Tickborne disease is a disease that is brought into the body through ticks. These ticks are transferred to humans through close contact with animals. Particularly through mice infected with ticks. And these ticks then transfer babesia through tick bites. Although there are other tick diseases that can occur with tick bites, but this is certainly most well-known.

Signs & Symptoms

The tick signs are important to note in animals as these can transfer the diseases easily. Babesiosis in dogs; canine babesiosis is fairly common as is bovine babesiosis. This disease known as babesiosis or as human babesiosis for when it occurs in humans can present itself in a variety of different ways or symptoms. It may present as babesiosis rash or it may just be without any serious symptoms or asymptomatic.

If the person is healthy he/she may not present with any symptoms or may present with mild symptoms. These symptoms may include chills or fever, with or without myalgia, (a kind of muscle ache) or nausea and vomiting. Some may also have additional symptoms like abnormal skin coloration or impaired renal (kidney) issues. But, as discussed normally healthy individuals do not present with symptoms, but those individuals that may be immunocompromised can present with such symptoms. For example these are individuals with liver diseases or with renal or kidney diseases. They maybe elderly, suffering from multiple issues.

Such immunocompromised individuals can be people with some autoimmune disorders or with spleen removed or may be suffering from other immune disorders. Human babesiosis can be life threatening if left untreated in such immunocompromised individuals. As these the immune system is already burdened with another disease, this tickborne disease starts acting like an opportunist infection. And some cases of transfusion associated sepsis may also be associated with such individuals.

Read more about Lyme Disease Here


If human babesia is left untreated can be a cause of different serious complications. These may include invariable blood pressure, blood disorders like thrombocytopenia (low platelet counts), or hemolytic anemia, malfunction of the organs (e.g. lungs or kidneys), or Disseminated intravascular coagulation or DIC, and or even death.

Babesosis Species

There may be many other types of babesia infections, only a small number of which occur in humans and cause infection. This human babesia is called the microti type or the Babesia Microti. This tick borne infection usually infects small mammals e.g. mice and such small footed mammals. There may be other species of babesia spreading sporadically but by far the most common human babesia is of the microti type.

This babesia is transferred from the young tick which is more liable to bite as it is growing. Particularly in the warm seasons as circumstances for multiplication are most optimum in summer temperatures. Most individuals do not even feel the bite as the size of the tick is very small. Ultimately, which type of babesia or human babesia; someone gets normally depends on the geographical location of the person.

Affected Populations by Babesosis

Although people of any age can get this infection, but it normally affects older individuals usually over fifty (50) years of age. Gender differentiation is not likely as both males and females are affected in equal numbers. But those people with low immunity or with splenectomy as they are also have a weakened immune system. Another problem with the disease is that it remains unrecognized. Due to which babesiosis is under reported. Although it is not possible to miss the presence of such infections, this can be attributed to low awareness of the infection.


Diagnosis of human babesiois depends upon a number of factors. First the patient has to realize the infection, then the physician to consider babesiosis. Then finally through blood samples examined under microscope going through a comprehensive analysis, as it is a fairly uncommon sight. These then are confirmed through antibody testing.

Babesosis Treatment

Normally babesiosis is treated through an antibiotic or an antiparasitic drug. But most of the time healthy individuals spontaneously resolve these infections. But occasionally individuals might require such treatment due to a weakened system of immunity.

Babesosis Prevention

Prevention of babesiosis is fairly simple, by avoiding contact with tick bearing animals as almost all cases of human babesiosis occur through the tick borne route of transmission. Other than that, there can be other preventive ways to avoid such infections. Certain clothing measures like wearing long trousers, hats and long sleeved shirts or overalls.

Wearing light colors to improve visibility for ticks. The usage of materials such as repellants, taking showers immediately after contact with animals and proper examination of some body areas such as neck or scalp can help prevent human babesiosis.

It can also be avoided by not going into marshes, wooded areas or overgrowing fields, where risk of exposure of such ticks is high. But having a 360 degree approach that may include all measures would be a good strategy to avoid such an infection.

If there are animals in the surroundings, getting them looked by a veterinary physician regularly can avoid them getting ticks that might contain the parasite.

FAQs about babesiosis


Although it is a rare infection, Babesiosis is an infection that can be an issue of concern for individuals. The smart thing would be to be aware that such a thing can occur and how to take measure to avoid such risks.

Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar

Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar

Benefits of apple cider vinegar

Age old saying comes to mind when you talk of apples, ‘an apple a day, keeps the doctor away’. But the health benefits of apples are not limited to only having them in single form every day. Apparently these have been used in different forms from centuries. Taking apple juice and storing the unsweetened form for around 20-30 days along with yeast, causes it to ferment. This fermentation process makes the famous apple cidar vinegar, that is used as a staple food flavor and preservative.

Apple Cider Vinegar is good for you

Apple Cider Vinegar is good for you because it may contain numerous minerals, fibers and multiple vitamins. It is low in calories and is a good way to improve flavor in foods. It is also a way for weight loss. People working on their diets often describe apple cider vinegar due to its role in metabolism. Especially, when apple cider vinegar is taken in the morning. There may be a large number of potential health benefits related to apple cider vinegar which have been described. Although apple cider vinegar nutrition facts are relatively well known, its health benefits are those that people have become more interested in recently. The health benefits fan from around obesity, skin related issues, to gout, allergies, sore throat, blood pressure, yeast infection to eczema.

Apple Cider Vinegar for Weight Loss

Obesity or being overweight is an issue that has taken the form of an epidemic. Obesity in turn also brings in problems like diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, cholesterol and also increases risk of stroke and heart attacks. Reducing body fat in the belly is a task which not only takes reducing calories but also spending time in physical exercise. Taking apple cider in the morning is related to weight loss, and has been used for this purpose since quite some time. It has been reported that taking apple cider vinegar may have a role in reducing appetite. This reduction in appetite results in weight loss over a period of time. Other than that it may also have nutritional benefits as well. The feeling of being full after having apple cider vinegar also is a reason that this is considered as a weight loss aid.

Apple Cider Vinegar Blood Sugar

Taking apple cider vinegar helps in weight loss as well as helps in reducing blood sugar levels.  Apple cider vinegar helps body keep blood sugar level under control. It has been reported that those people who take apple cider vinegar in the morning or before taking a meal are better able to control triglycerides and insulin after the meal, especially in those with impaired glucose tolerance.

Triglycerides and cholesterol increase the risk of severe debilitating problems like stroke and heart attacks. There are numerous evidences that tell us that those people that take apple cider vinegar have reduced levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. So, not only apple cider vinegar is good for your weight loss but also is effective in controlling levels of blood sugar, triglycerides and cholesterol.

Benefits of Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids

Apple Cider Vinegar for Yeast Infection

There are some really well known household remedies for some infections that occur in the form of yeast or fungus. Yeast infections and fungal infections can be issues that might reflect deeper problems. Commonly not found in normal instances but can range from minor issues to life threatening. The most common of these are those found in the mucosa i.e. oral mucosa which can extend to throat and, vaginal mucosa. Those people with high glucose content in blood for example people with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type 2 or people with immune system comprised can develop fungal or yeast infections. Apple cider vinegar for yeast infections has been used since long. It has been thought to stop candida infections, which is a common cause of this infection. Applying apple cider vinegar on the mouth helps relieve the symptoms and clears up infection in those people not responding to treatment or with long standing infection.

Candida albicans is a common cause of fungal infections in humans. In some people, Candida infections can be long-lasting and may become resistant to antifungal drugs.

Apple Cider Vinegar For Sore Throat

Apple cider vinegar for sore throat is used widely, as an old household remedy. This is used for gargling purposes, since the medium of apple cider vinegar is acidic in nature, it is thought that it would be helpful in eliminating the infection causing sore throat. But it is also at the same time important to make sure that water is mixed with it when using it for gargling, as prolonged or concentrated exposure to it might cause burns or injury.

Apple Cider Vinegar For Food Preservatives

Besides apple cider vinegar uses as health benefits, it also has preservative properties which is similar to other types of vinegar. But being a natural origin, it is preferred over the rest, to preserve pickles and a pickling agent. Due to being acidic in nature it helps destroy any bacterial presence and slows its breakdown hence preserves the nature of the food over a period of time.

Side Effects of Apple Cider Vinegar

Although there are many beneficial health benefits as described, that it may be good for gout, Apple cider vinegar may be good for blood pressure and eczema as well. There may be some effects that needs to be kept in mind when using it. It may contain antioxidants that may help reduce health issues but continuous exposure to the skin for extended periods of time may cause burns and injuries to the skin. The same can be true for mucosal surfaces like the oral cavity i.e. the mouth, the larynx/pharynx i.e. the throat. Another issue is the corrosion of tooth surfaces, called the enamel. Repeated exposure of apple cider vinegar to the teeth surface may cause the erosion of the enamel, which might expose the sensitivity of the teeth. This may present itself as pain in eating sweet, hot or cold food. So it is important to take it diluted, this will decrease the acidity and reduce the risk of erosion to the teeth as well as causing injury to the skin or mucosa. But the fact remains that there are numerous health benefits of taking apple cider vinegar in the morning.

For more amazing benefits of apple cider vinegar Click Here.

Benefits of Omega 3 Essential Fatty Acids

benefits of omega 3

Benefits of Omega 3

All things in nature contain things that are good for our nutrition. Especially those things that our body does not produce, one of these things is Omega 3 fatty acid. There are some foods that do contain these essential fatty acids for example eggs, Fish and Oliver Oil. These essential Fatty Acids i.e. Omega 3 fatty Acids contain molecules such as DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), ALA (alpha linolenic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid). If we start keeping few food items that contain these essential fatty acid i.e. Omega 3 in our diet we would be able to utilize the powerful health benefits of Omega 3 in our lives. So the next question that comes to mind is what food items contain this extremely  important important ingredient that has been studied so thoroughly over such a long period of time. Well, first and foremost Fish is high in Omega 3.


Fish is a very healthy addition to consider for our regular diet. It not only contains vital nutrients like Omega 3 but also contains oils which is in very high content of these essential nutrient. CLO (Cod Liver Oil) is something that most people are familiar with and use since their childhood. But Fish oil is not only from Cod, but from other fish as well like Tuna and Macquerel, Salmon, and Herring. Regardless of the type of fish, all fish oils have a very high content of Omega 3.

Other than fish oil, Olive Oil Omega 3 is also another source that we can easily use to get this important ingredient in our diets. Another important nutrient is eggs and chia seeds Omega 3. Having these in your diet can increase the Omega 3 content in your body.

There are many benefits that we can reap from foods high in Omega 3.

Benefits from Omega 3 – Bone Health

In addition to being a pain in the bones and joints. Omega 3 is shown to have effects in reducing swelling and inflammation of joints and bones. Especially in conditions like Rheumatoid Arthritis, having foods high in Omega 3 help reduce swellings and pain in such patients

Benefits from Omega 3 – Development during Pregnancy

During fetal development Omega 3 fatty acids have a crucial role to play in the development of the brain in such instances. As DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), a Omega 3 fatty acid is an essential part of the nervous system. Taking Omega 3 increases DHA content and helps in the normal development of the brain.

Benefits from Omega 3 – Eye Health

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), a Omega 3 fatty acid is a structural component of the retina. Retina is the part of the eye that is essential in vision. Omega 3 fatty acids improve the visual health in patients with visual difficulties DHA can be an important resource to improve eye health. There is a lot of literature showing benefits of the Omega 3 fatty acids especially DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in the prevention of eye damage and blindness.

Benefits from Omega 3 – Heart Disease

Fish eating communities have shown a low ratio of heart related issues. This is thought to be in part of the communities getting the benefit of Omega 3 from their natural diet, which is fish. Fish being a major source of Omega 3 provides benefits in prevention of heart disease in those people that consider fish to be a part of their diet the year around.

Not only does the essential fatty acids help in heart disease, but also blood pressure, inflammation and plaque away from the heart. It also eases formation of blood clots. Keeping in view of the importance of Omega 3 fatty acids, these need to be included in the diet, so that problems like stroke and heart attacks can be prevented. Keep your heart healthy and strong with these healthy habits.

Benefits from Omega 3 – Mental Health

EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), and ALA (alpha linolenic acid) all are beneficial in people suffering from anxiety or mental stress or depression. Individuals that take Omega 3 fatty acid supplements regularly show relief in symptoms of anxiety and or depression. Highlighting the role that all three constituents of the Omega 3 fatty acids play in our lives.

Benefits from Omega 3 – Reducing Inflammation

Having inflammatory issues are nowadays a common occurrence, individuals normally. These may be   long term issues due to any injury or infection and does not resolve over a period of time. In such instances body’s immune reaction which comes in the form of inflammation and swelling is manifested. Omega 3 fatty acids are substances that can reduce the substances in the blood that lead to the buildup of inflammation in the body. There have been many instances in which a direct relationship has been found to reduced inflammation and increased uptake of Omega 3 fatty acids.

Benefits from Omega 3 – Increases Focus in Children

There are instances where literature shows that children with lower levels of Omega 3 fatty acids in blood suffer from lack of focus, have issues of attention and have difficulties in task completion, especially compared to the children with better levels of Omega 3 fatty acids. Hence children suffering from ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) which can be seen as inattention, aggression, restlessness as behavior issues. Such children can benefit from supplements containing Omega 3 or increasing their Omega 3 fatty acid in their diet.

Benefits from Omega 3 – Overall Health

Omega 3 fatty acids have also been shown to be related with weight loss, and when taken with regular exercise increase muscles tone in the sense that it helps in increasing exercise performance and muscle fatigue. It also has been shown to reduce chances of respiratory related allergies. It also has effect in vasodilation, keeping the blood flow so is helpful in preventing lung disease like pneumonia and other related issues.

So keeping in mind all the benefits of Omega 3 fatty Acids, it would serve us well to take time out to focus on our health through the inclusion of essential nutrients like essential fatty acids in our diets. This would not only be beneficial for your body but also take us towards well-being.

Want to know more check some Science based benefits of omega 3