Horsehair Nematomorpha Human Diagnosis

horsehair nematomorpha human diagnosis

Since we are talking about Horsehair Nematomorpha Human Diagnosis we must know if or when this infection can happen to humans and as we all already know how dangerous nematomorpha which is commonly known as a horsehair worm, Gordian worm or Snakeworm can be for its hosts.

Although they do and can infect human host but mainly horsehair nematomorpha are harmless to vertebrates (69,963 species) and since humans are vertebrate a horsehair nematomorpha worm can cause mush damage even after the infection happens.

Fact: Horsehair worms can only paralyze insects (Invertebrates) with a long lifespan.

Some of the Species a Horsehair Worm cant Paralyze are:




Common Pets

Read more about the horsehair worm Here.

In most human infection cases only a mild abdominal discomfort occurs and the horsehair worm infection never fully happens.

However! there is a detailed study done on two human cases infected by horsehair nematomorpha worm. For more details regarding this Click Here.

Now lets talk about horsehair nematomorpha human diagnosis if the parasite manages to enter a human body. Well as we’ve already stated the horsehair worm infection doesn’t occur.  

Human horsehair nematomorpha symptoms are only a small stomach discomfort and after that the body’s immune system will easily take care of the intruder itself.

Read about Tapeworms and Rat lungworms

Tapeworms in Dogs and Cats

Tapeworm infections occur when an egg, larvae or an adult worm is ingested by an organism through infected food or water. Parasitic tapeworms live and feast inside their host’s body mostly intestine until its life cycle is complete. Just like humans tapeworm in dogs and tapeworm in cats are also common. Sadly our beloved pets aren’t any exception.

Tapeworms in Dogs

Tapeworms in Dogs

Tapeworms in dogs are very common and Dipylidium caninum also known as the flea tapeworm is the most common parasitic worm in dogs, in order to infect a dog the tapeworm must pass through a carrier it is there flea comes into play. As the name suggests Dipylidium caninum infection occurs when the host is bitten by an infected flea thus the parasitic worm enter the body of its new host where it sticks to the small intestine of the host and most of the time can be seen near the anus of the infected animal and can reach up to 30 centimeters in length.

If tapeworm in a dog is present, to ease irritation Infected dogs can be seen dragging/rubbing their bottoms on the ground (scooting) same symptoms can be seen when tapeworms in puppies are present. If a dog showing the behavior of scooting a vet visit is recommended.

Tapeworm Treatment for Dogs

Gladly there some are simple and extremely effective treatments for tapeworms in dogs with the help of modern medications which are safe and causes almost no side effects at all. With the help of Antiparasitic drugs the parasitic worms are digested in to the intestines.

Also read Worms in Dogs

Tapeworms in Dogs

Tapeworm in Cats

Tapeworm in cats are very common but most of the times goes unnoticed by the humans When an infected flea or a tapeworm larvae in ingested by a cat the infection happens. Tapeworms often attaches itself inside the gut of the infected cat and feeds from there they break into segments with eggs in it and are than passed through the anus of the infected animal. The infected feces can spread the parasitic worm to other animals such as cats and dogs. Infected cats can be seen licking their anus to ease irritation caused by the parasite segments passed through the feces.

Tapeworm Treatment for Cats

Just like dogs treatment for tapeworms in cats are easily available and are simple and effective with the help of suitable medication prescribed by the vet. Treatments for both cats and dogs are extremly effective if the parasitic infection is detected in its early stages.

Want to know more please visit here

Lice Treatment at Home | Getting Rid of Lice

To understand lice and head lice treatment we must first know what are head lice? also known as pediculosis capitis, are found worldwide head lice isn’t known to spread diseases, head louse or head lice are unable to fly and are mostly found crawling on the hairs of its human host, it lives near the scalp and by feeding on the blood of the infected victim many times during 24 hours. Head lice spreads by crawling on one person’s head to another

Head Lice Life Stages:

There are the following three life stages of head lice

Lice Nits ( lice egg )

Nits are oval in shape,seems like dandruff and are very hard too see and recognize due to its tiny size and lays deep at the hair shafts. Nits hatches in almost a week and are of yellowish white colors.

Lice Nymphs

Nymphs comes out when the nits hatches, Nymphs looks almost the same as adult head lice and sticks to the hair shafts just like adult lice it is very quick and hides as much as possible making it very hard to catch.

Adult Lice

Its lives for almost a month an adult lice is dark in color almost gray with 6 legs and females are a little larger than males. Living on the head of its human host head lice feeds many times in a day and are unable to survive of a day or two with out feeding on the blood of its host.

Getting Rid of Lice | Lice Treatment at Home

In order to get rid of lice wash thoroughly all items used by the infected such as combs and towels etc. with hot water don’t forget to clean floors and furniture where the lice or nits might have fallen. Or lock the item away from any possible host. Do all the above to avoid severe lice infestation. Some of the most effective live treatment options are listed below:

Lice Combs

Lice combs and electric lice combs are some of the most effective methods to remove head lice from the head of the infected. It removes the nymphs and the lice from the hair but are unable to budge the lice eggs. There are other treatment options available as well such as lice lotion and lice shampoo which are found to be effective but exposes the hair with chemicals which can sometime have side effects.

Lice Shampoo

lice shampoo are mostly safe for kids but might require prescription is another effective way to eliminate lice and other types of parasitic mites from the hair. Lice shampoos can sometime cause minor side effects such as irritation, redness of the skin where lice shampoo was applied, mild to moderate itching and other. Similar side effects. Please consult for doctor or pharmacist if you experience any of the mentioned side effects.

Read about other deadly parasites here

Kissing Bug – What is Chaga Disease

kissing bug

Kissing Bugs

Kissing bug is called a kissing bug because it bites on the face of its host and there are many names given to the kissing bug but the most commonly used ones are vampire bugs and conenose bugs. It’s a member of the Triatominae family which is a sub-family  Reduviidae. A kissing bug is mostly found in the region of Americas just some of the species of the kissing bug are found in Australia, Asia, and Africa, It feeds on the blood of all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata and are responsible for the Chagas disease / American trypanosomiasis.

Chagas Disease – American trypanosomiasis

Trypanosoma cruzi is the parasite responsible for the Chaga disease, what it does is it bore within the tissues of its host in order to suck on its blood. The Trypanosoma cruzi is spread mostly to humans and other hosts via the bite of a kissing bug but it can also spread through the contaminated blood transfusion, organ transplant and consuming food which contains the parasitic bug.

Chagas Disease Symptoms

There are various common symptoms of the chaga disease and it can be hard to tell the symptoms with many other diseases. Some people might experience some mild symptoms at first and the symptoms might disappear later for even years. Some of the symptoms are listed below:



Some Enlarged Glands


Loss of Appetite

Swelling or sore on the site of the bite

Some of the advanced phase symptoms are:

  1. Heart failure
  2. Abnormal heartbeat
  3. Difficulty passing stool
  4.  Eating becomes hard

Chaga Disease Treatment

The good news is this disease can be cured completely when treated on time. The medicines considered very effective in the treatment of the disease are benznidazole and also nifurtimox in late stages of the disease come other medicines and surgical procedures might be required in order to cure the Chaga disease.

Rat Lungworm Disease Signs and Symptoms

rat lungworm

Rat lungworm also known as Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a roundworm parasite that is spreading around the world and is one of the most common cause of inflammation of the membranes protecting the brain and spinal cord commonly known as meningitis, which is a very serious condition. Snails play an important role in the life-cycle of rat lungworm as it carries the larvae until it’s matured and ready to infect it’s next host.

Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Hosts

Mostly snails, rodents and some birds are the primary hosts of rat lungworm disease and humans are not it’s common host but can be infected through accidentally ingesting the infectious larvae through food or contaminated water. Once inside it’s host, the larvae with the help of it’s hosts blood travels to the central nervous system thus meningitis occurs causing severe damage and even death of the infected host. Infected person can not infect other people.

Life-cycle of Angiostrongylus cantonensis

rat lungworm
Life cycle of Angiostrongylus cantonensis

When a rat consumes the infected snail/mollusc the nematode comes out with in the stomach of the host rat. Than the Angiostrongylus cantonensis 3rd stage larvae makes its way to the small intestine and burrows into the wall to enter into the blood stream of the infected rat. From blood it moves to the kidney’s and lungs and within the next 24 hours it is carried out to the spinal cord and the brain through out the process most of the larvae are lost due to the immune system of the infected host. Once the larvae reaches the brain and spinal cord undetected it is there when their feeding frenzy begins.

Angiostrongylus cantonensis Signs and Symptoms

Following are the symptoms of Angiostrongylus cantonensis:

Stiff neck

Severe headache

Tingling in the skin




What is African Sleeping Sickness

african sleeping sickness
Tsetse fly

What is African sleeping sickness?

African sleeping sickness also called African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease of humans and many other animals, African sleeping sickness is caused by an insect thus making it an insect borne illness which is caused by a tsetse fly carrying the African trypanosomiasis parasites. The tsetse flies are commonly found in the sub-Saharan Africa especially in Democratic republic of Congo and is greatly responsible for causing African trypanosomiasis .

These flies when infected by either Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or Trypanosoma brucei gambiense parasite becomes a part in the African sleeping sickness parasite’s lifecycle. There are many reported cases of
African trypanosomiasis and mostly in rural areas caused by an infected tsetse fly bite

African Sleeping Sickness Transmission

African sleeping sickness is caused by an infected tsetse flies (big brown fly) that is a host to the parasite itself. The fly pierces the skin tissue when it bites and the parasite enters the lymphatic system and later passes into the bloodstream from there. African trypanosomiasis can also rarely occur by organ transplant, blood transfusion & from mother to unborn child during pregnancy or at the time of delivery.

Also Read: Prevention of Malaria – Fight Malaria Symptoms

African Sleeping Sickness Symptoms

Symptoms includes

Stage one:

  • Headaches
  • Joint Pain
  • Itching
  • Intermittent Fever

Stage two: (when the parasite invades the CNS (central nervous system)

  • Disruption of the sleep cycle (It gave the name sleeping sickness)
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Apathy
  • Psychotic reactions
  • Irritability

African Sleeping Sickness Treatment

Treatment of African trypanosomiasis is available but is highly dependent on the stage of the illness present. Intravenous of intramuscular are used for the treatment of the disease, pentamidine for gambiense and Suramin for rhodesiense parasite.

Travelers Risk

The risk of acquiring African trypanosomiasis for travelers is quite low but be careful when living or staying in the rural areas of the sub-Saharan Africa or where there is some thick vegetation present. Visitors in the city are usually not at risk of the African sleeping sickness infection.

Also Read: The Flesh-Eating Botflies

African Sleeping Sickness Prevention

Now we that African sleeping is caused by an infected tsetse fly so lets talk about how to prevent it.

  • Avoid bushes and plants at day time as its when the tsetse fly rest on the plants.
  • The tsetse fly is very attracted to bright colors so avoid wearing bright colors.
  • Must wear insect repellent However there is not much proof that insect repellent works with tsetse flies.
  • Stay and live places that are fully air conditioned.
  • The tsetse flies are also attracting to moving objects so be sure to check your vehicles.

Worms in Dogs Symptoms Causes and Treatment

worms in dogs
Photo by Daniel Cano on Unsplash

A Man’s Best Friend

When we hear the phrase “a man’s best friend” what comes to most people’s mind are… You’ve guessed it!  Dogs. It doesn’t matter if they are big or small these domesticated mammals are considered by most as a part of their families.  Dogs were the first animal to be domesticated by humans and were bred from wolves for a long time.

Dogs have pack mentality and are famous for their loyalty that’s why dogs are used to help many humans in work and some are kept as pets my people around the world. Their lifespan depends on the breed and the size of the breed as seen smaller dogs tent to live longer than the bigger ones. Although dogs are colorblind but they have a magnificent sense of smell and can also hear a lot better than us.

Also Read Tapeworms in Dogs | Tapeworm in Cats

Parasites in Dogs 

Just like any other living creature there are various parasites can infect dogs such as mites, fleas, worms, and other parasitic organisms. Worms in dogs and other parasites found in dogs are listed below:



Ancylostoma caninum

Brucella canis

Capillaria aerophila

Capillaria feliscati

Capillaria plica

Cat flea


Dermacentor variabilis

Cheyletiella yasguri

Dipylidium caninum

Dirofilaria immitis

Dog flea

Dirofilaria repens


Echinococcus granulosus

Echinococcus multilocularis


Hookworm infection

Necator americanus


Rhipicephalus sanguineus

Sarcoptes scabiei

Thelazia callipaeda

Toxocara canis

Trichodectes canis

Trichuris vulpis

What Causes Worms in Dogs

Dogs usually get infected by parasitic worms by either through air, by mouth, eating infected food such as rodents or through skin contact when the parasite or its larvae burrow through its hosts skin. Parasite larvae or/and eggs are almost always present in the infected dogs feces and can be deadly for humans as well as for younger children.

Roundworms in Dogs

Roundworms are a nematode worm which lives inside its host’s small intestine and can be found in many environments around the world. Roundworms infection in dogs occurs when a dog eats infected food or drink infected water. Roundworms are also present in the soil and can be found in the feces. Roundworms in dogs also pose a possible infection threat to the dog’s owners.

Also Read How to Tell if you have Pinworms

Hookworms in Dogs

Hookworms are blood feeding parasitic worms which live in the intestine of mammals such as humans but it also infects dogs. It feeds on the blood of its host by attaching its hook like mouth in the wall of the gut and punctures the tissues in order to feed.

Whipworms in Dogs

Whipworms (Trichuris trichiura) are whip shaped parasites known to infect domestic animals such as dogs and/or cats and children. It is an infection of the large intestine and is commonly found in hot and humid climates. Whipworm infection occurs when a possible host ingests water or soil contaminated by whipworm parasite.

Heartworms in Dogs

Heartworms or dog heart worms (Dirofilaria immitis) are thread-like tiny worms that are transmitted when a mosquito carrying the parasite bites the possible host. Mosquitoes play an important role in the life cycle of dog heartworms as they carry these tiny parasites from one host to another.

Canine Tapeworm

Canine tapeworm infection (Dipylidium caninum)  is the most commonly found parasitic infection in cats and dogs. These are intestinal worms and feeds by attaching their mouth to the wall of the small intestine just like hookworms does. The adult canine tapeworm can reach approximately 8inches in length. Dogs can only get infected by these parasites by ingesting a flea carrying canine tapeworms. Canine tapeworms depends on the fea in order to complete it’s life cycle Therefore one should make sure there are not any feas present on our canine friend.

Commonly these tapeworms are not deadly but heavy infestations can cause serious health issues if left untreated. If your dog is scooting (itching its rear on the ground) it’s time for a vet visit.

White Worms in Dog Poop

Occasionally dog owners may find small white worms in dogs poop, it is an oblivious sign the dog is infected with a parasitic worms. Worms might look white, brown or tan can be large or smaller like rice or noodle and can be segmented, it all depends on the type of worms that are present in the stool of the infected pet. Such parasitic worms can also be seen sticking near the genital area of the infected dog. Make sure to get your beloved dog checked by the vet as soon as possible and try to keep your pet flea free in order to avoid such parasitic worm’s infections. Humans can also get infected by round worms so avoid any contact with the infected dog’s feces in order to avoid getting round worms.

Worms in Dogs Symptoms

Signs of worms in dogs include:

•             Dull fur coat

•             Diarrhea

•             Not enough energy

•             Vomiting

•             Coughing

•             Weight loss

•             Itching

•             Skin irritation

•             Worms in stool, vomit or fur

•             Scooting (rubbing its genitals on the ground)

If any of the worms in dogs symptoms occurs be sure to consult your vet at all cost in order to avoid any further damage to the dogs internal organs before it’s too late as heavy number of worms inside the dog can result in some serious health issues and even death. Ask the vet to prescribe any worm and flea prevention medication if it need be.

Can Humans Get Worms from Dogs

Such parasitic worms can also infect humans if contracted from contaminated feces or soil and ingested by adults or children and even when an infected pet dog licks the human as dogs tend to eat their feces occasionally. Once infection occurs the parasitic worms can cause some very severe damage to various organs inside its human host such as lungs, eyes, heart and brain. Neurological signs might start to appear in the infected human host due to worms being present or trying to make their way in to the brain.

Worms in Dogs Treatment

Worms in dog’s treatment is possible and there are various medicines you’re treating vet can prescribe in order to treat the infected dog successfully. Few worms in dogs medicine that the vet may prescribe are as follows:


Piperazine simply paralyzes the worms so all the worms present can pass through the stool. It is prescribed for the treatment of pinworms and common round worms. (Please consult your treating physician before taking poperazine).


Fenbendazole is used to treat intestinal parasites such as common tapeworms, hookworms, whipworms and roundworms in pets. (Please consult your veterinarian).


Milbemycin oxime is a prescription drug and is used to treat various parasitic worm infections in cats and dogs such as roundworms, hookworms and whipworms. (Please consult your veterinarian).


Pyrantel is an anti-worm drug used for treating parasitic worm infection such as hookworms and roundworms infection as it  interferes with the worms process of multiplying inside the host. (Please consult your veterinarian).


Moxidectin is a also an anti worms medication used specifically in animals in order to control various parasitic intestinal worms infections and heartworm infection. (Please consult your veterinarian).

Mosquito Lifespan Types and Diseases Spread by Mosquitoes

mosquito lifespan


The word “mosquito” is a Spanish word which means a “small fly”. It belongs from the Culicidae family, a family consists of quite thin/slender flies with long legs, hairy bodies, wriggly larvae and posses mouth parts sharp enough to pierce into its host’s body.  A male mosquito lifespan is ten days but a female mosquito lifespan is almost fifty days long.

Male mosquitoes feeds on the nectar of plants while the female mosquito can pierce into the host’s skin to suck on the host’s blood such as mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds and some fish and very few invertebrates such as other arthropods. As the protein present in the blood are an essential part in the mosquito reproduction process.

The female mosquito can lay eggs more than 3 times during its life span and most mosquitoes lay eggs in the water and some lays the eggs near water.

When a mosquito bites (pierce into the skin) its saliva is transmits into the hosts body resulting in itching along with a rash in most cases and can probably inject some dangerous parasites like malaria, west nile virus, dengue fever, zika virus, yellow fever and more.

Mosquito Lifespan

Mosquito lifespan is different for both males and females as the females greatly out live the male mosquitoes. A mosquito lifespan is definitely different but both male and female lifecycle is divided into the following 3 stages:

An Egg

A female mosquito usually lay their eggs in or near water. It takes almost 24 to 48 hours for mosquito eggs to hatch.


A mosquito larva lives in the water closer to the surface of the water and breathes with its breathing tube until the pupa stage begins within a week.


When the pupal stage starts the mosquito larva stops feeding becomes inactive and immobile. Inside the pupa its larva is under development and will emerge as a full grown mosquito in a few days or a week.

Types of Mosquitoes

The mosquito lifespan of most mosquitoes are the same but there are many types of mosquitoes out there some of the most well known ones are listed below:

Aedes aegypti – Yellow Fever Mosquito

Aedes aegypti the yellow fever mosquito has white spots/lines on its legs and white mark on its thorax and can transmit numerous disease agents such as yellow fever virus, zika virus and dengue virus.

Culex quinquefasciatus – the Southern House Mosquito

Culex quinquefasciatus the southern house mosquito can be commonly found in the sub tropical and tropical regions around the world and mainly transmits zoonotic diseases.

Culex – House Mosquito

Culex The house mosquito can be commonly found in area where polluted water is left standing such as rain water pet water dishes and ponds in size culex the house mosquito is medium and brown in color.

Aedes albopictus – the Tiger Mosquito

Aedes albopictus the tiger mosquito or forest mosquito are native of southern Asia it can be found in tropical and sub tropical areas in the past years it has expended greatly travelled through transports and other similar means to various countries outside of Asia with the help of by human activities.

Mosquito Bites

Although mosquito lifespan is not very long but a mosquito bite can cause some serious illnesses. When a mosquito bites, immediately the affected area will develop an itchy puffy bump and / or a rash, white or red usually it will clear up in a matter of days on its own.

Diseases Spread by Mosquitoes

There are many diseases spread by mosquito that although some people don’t get sick or the sickness is mild in some after getting bitten due to a healthy immune system. The following are some of the illnesses caused by mosquito bites:

Zika Virus

Zika virus can be spread through a mosquito bite of Aedes species. It is a dangerous disease and if a pregnant woman gets infected with zika virus the baby is at a great risk of having microcephaly a birth defect in which the baby’s brain will not develop completely.

Zika Virus Symptoms

Fever, rash, body aches, joint pain and red eyes in some cases. Mostly the infected will not experience any symptom at all or very little.

Zika Virus Treatment

Sadly! There is no medicine or vaccines available for the treatment of zika virus out there.

West Nile Virus

It is a viral infection typically spread by mosquito bites. People infected with west nile virus rarely experience any symptoms and about 1% of people develop any serious illness.

West Nile Virus Symptoms

The west nile virus symptoms only in severe cases includes sleeplessness, paralysis, coma, tremors and disorientation but almost all cases of west nile virus experience no or mild symptoms and it goes away on its own.

West Nile Virus Treatment

The west nile virus treatment if required in severe cases only consists of intravenous and pain killers.


The illness known as Chikungunya is caused by the chikungunya virus spread through mosquito bites. Its mosquito bites only at day times and can also infect rodents and birds.

Chikungunya Symptoms

Symptoms occurs in a week or 10 days  after the hosts is bitted by the mosquito and symptoms includes joint pain, headaches, body aches and fever.

Chikungunya Treatment

Treatment of chikungunya consists of plenty of rest  and paracetamol or acetaminophen to ease the body pain and fever in the infected although no medication should be taken before consulting the physician as some medicine can worse the illness if it’s not chikungunya due to chikungunya and dengue fever both have very similar symptoms.

Dengue Virus

The dengue virus is transmitted through mosquito bites resulting in a viral disease known as dengue; it is present in many parts of the world today and can sometime be very lethal to its host. If severe dengue can damage many organs such as the heart and lungs, greatly dropping blood pressure and even death is reported in some cases.

Dengue Virus Symptoms

Symptoms of dengue virus usually start after 2 days or two weeks after the infection. Symptoms include acute pain in joints, body pain, high fever and even vomiting.

Dengue Virus Treatment

Dengue treatment consists of pain relievers and plenty of rest and only a certified doctor can prescribe the c correct medicine by a physical examination. However! Aspirin should be avoided as it can worsen the bleeding if there is any.

Malaria Virus

Malaria is spread by an anopheles mosquito. Malaria is a single celled organism which multiplies in the red blood cells; it is not a virus nor is it a bacterium. Malaria is a serious disease and can sometime be very fatal to its host.

Symptoms of Malaria Virus 

The malaria virus symptoms consists of  abdominal pain, head and body aches, nausea, diarrhea and extreme sweating along with severe chills following with high fever. Also see Prevention of Malaria – Fight Malaria Symptoms

CAN mosquito spread HIV/AIDS?

Well no! mosquitoes can not transmit HIV AIDS. The reason is that in human blood we have T cells (host cells for HIV virus) the HIV virus binds it self to the T cells in human blood and starts to replicate.

The HIV virus needs T cells to survive in side the human body. In a mosquitoes gut there are no T cells present to bind itself in order to replicate, therefore the HIV virus ends up beings digested by the digestive system inside the mosquitoes stomach. Although when in the infected blood is injected with a needle the HIV virus is present due to the blood in the syringe having T cells present and the syringe does not contain a digestive system.

Causes And Symptoms of HIV AIDS

Treatment of Malaria Virus

Oral medication is commonly prescribed in malaria virus treatment. However! If the infection is severe intravenous infusion is used

Yellow Fever Virus – Jaundice

Yellow fever virus is a flavivirus and is transmitted via an infected mosquito. Mostly yellow fever is like a flue only some cases are severe. Yellow fever also known as jaundice has been around for centuries.

Symptoms of Yellow Fever or Jaundice Symptoms

Jauindice or yellow fever symptoms includes high fever, yellowing of the eyes and skin, dizziness, loss of appetite and light sensitivity.

Treatment Yellow Fever or Jaundice Treatment

There is no treatment of yellow fever or jaundice pain killers are usually prescribed until the virus runs it course and the immune system fights it off for good.

Repel Mosquitoes

In order to prevent all diseases and illnesses that can be transmitted by mosquitoes (mosquito borne illnesses) we must make sure there are no mosquitoes around us and to do so we should  use top high quality mosquito repellents.


Most Common Cause of Meningitis – Meningitis Symptoms

most common cause of meningitis

Definition of a Brain

Before we get into meningitis and the most common cause of meningitis we must understand our brain a little. We all have a soft nervous tissue organ in our heads.  It is one of the most complex and one of largest organs we humans have in our bodies. Our brains are made up of many almost more than one hundred billion nerves that is busy communicating in more than trillions of connections also known as synapses.

Brain being one of the most important organs in our body is also one of the most protected one unfortunately some deadly parasites have figured out how to a well protected brain.

What is Meningitis?

Meningitis is a severe and serious infectious disease mostly caused by viral or bacterial infection. Meningitis occurs when there is an inflammation of the thin lining around the brain and spinal cord called meninges. If a person suffering from meningitis is not taken cared of immediately, meningitis can be life threatening. There are rare causes of meningitis and most common cause of meningitis.

Define Meningoencephalitis

Meningoencephalitis is a term use to define an inflammation or infection of the membranes of our brain or adjoining cerebral tissue. Many organisms can cause this such as protozoan’s, bacterial and viral.

How Common is Bacterial Meningitis

Bacterial meningitis is one of the most common and most dangerous types of meningitis out there. The following bacteria are responsible for almost all bacterial meningitis cases around the world:

Hemophilus Influenza

It is a gram-negative bacterium from the Pasteurellaceae family and can cause various dangerous diseases and invasive infections. One invaded by Hemophilus influenza might require immediate medical help and / or hospitalization. It can cause severe infection of the spinal cord and brain also known as meningitis.

Streptococcus Pneumoniae

It is gram-positive bacteria usually found living in pairs; it belongs to the genus Streptococcus family. Streptococcus pneumonia is the master of invasions. Streptococcus pneumonia is responsible of most deaths around the world than any other bacterial infection as it is the most common cause of bloodstream infections.

Neisseria Meningitides

Neisseria meningitides is a gram-negative bacterium also known as meningococcal, it can cause meningitis and many other forms contagious infections such as a life-threatening sepsis called meningococcemia.

Are There Different Types of Meningitis?

There are many ways a person can get meningitis

  • Bacterial Meningitis

Bacterial meningitis is very deadly and life-threatening and can spread by close contact with the infected. It is meningitis caused by bacteria. It is often deadly and requires immediate medical help

  • Viral Meningitis

Viral meningitis is caused by viruses and is mostly mild but relatively common; a viral meningitis can rarely be dangerous enough to kill the infected. It is less serious than bacterial meningitis and most of the times cure on its own. Viral meningitis is one of the most common cause of meningitis around the world.

  • Parasitic Meningitis

Parasitic Meningitis is caused by Naegleria fowleri. It is the primary cause of rare parasitic meningitis.

  • Fungal Meningitis

Fungal meningitis mostly infected people with weak immune system (Such as people suffering from the HIV) can be a victim of the fungal meningitis as it is caused by a fungus that spreads through the blood stream to the spinal cord.

  • Non-Infectious Meningitis

Non-Infectious Meningitis can be caused by the inflammation of the membrane covering the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Some drugs can cause non-infectious meningitis to happen.

Most Common Cause of Bacterial Meningitis in Adults

In adults and children’s Streptococcus pneumonia causes sinus of ear infections and is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis around the world. There are vaccines available to prevent this deadly infection.

Signs of Bacterial Meningitis in Babies

There are many signs of bacterial meningitis in babies, the most common ones are

  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Pale skin
  • Unusual Crying
  • Rapid breathing
  • Cold body (hands or feet)

Meningitis Symptoms in Adults

The symptoms will usually appear 5 to 8 days after one is infected.  The first most common symptoms of meningitis are:

  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting

Other symptoms that follow are:

  • Headache
  • Pale skin
  • Severe body or limb pain
  • Stiff neck
  • Cold feet and hands
  • Bright lights will annoy the infected
  • Often confused

Meningococcal Meningitis Rash

Meningococcal meningitis rash happens when the bacteria in the blood stream reproduces it releases a poison called septicemia. It damages the blood vessels as the bacterial infection progresses causing a faint skin rash probably  red, pink in some cases purple.

Meningitis Treatment

Meningitis is mostly treated with a combination of antibiotics most from the class cephalosporins. Some bacterial meningitis are very dangerous as they become antibiotic resistant. But fortunately there are still many antibiotics that works well against meningitis infection such as Vancomycin, rifampin and ceftriaxone.

Note: Before taking any medication please consult your treating physician. The right medication can only be prescribed by your doctor after a physical check-up.

Prevention of Malaria – Fight Malaria Symptoms

prevention of malaria
What is Malaria?

Malaria is usually found in the tropical reigns, It is where the parasite can survive. When an infected Anopheles mosquito bites a person it transmits a Plasmodium parasite into the bloodstream of the victim thus this life threatening illness malaria occurs. Also see  Mosquito Lifespan Types and Diseases Spread by Mosquitoes

This deadly parasite when inside the hosts body the parasite makes its way straight to the liver of the infected, it is there the parasite matures and after 10 to 5 days the adult parasitic killer enters the bloodstream of its prey once more and it begins its killing frenzy by infecting the red blood cells of its host and within 2 to 3 days the infected red blood cells explodes due to the malaria parasite inside it started to multiply.

The malaria parasite continues this killing cycle that can lasts up to 3 days. Prevention of malaria should be considered even before the victim is bitten by this deadly killer.

Malaria Zones

Malaria can be found in almost every tropical subtropical reign more than half of the earth’s population is at risk of malaria. It can be found in the Central America, South America, and areas of Asia, Africa, some parts of the Middle East, Haiti and Dominican Republic. India has 24 million cases of malaria every year but most the cases of malaria and deaths related to malaria occurred in the sub-Saharan Africa.

Malaria Symptoms

When infected initially the host will experience cold, high fever, body aches, and extreme fatigue with flu like symptoms along with headaches, shaking chills, sweating, weakness, vomiting and nausea.

How to Stop Malaria – How to Control Malaria

In order to stop malaria or fight against malaria the parasite must first be identified as identification of the parasite is very important in prevention of malaria and this can be done with a malaria blood test by examining the infected patients blood under a microscope before this is done the specimen is stained in order to make the parasite appear distinctive.

Malaria Medication

Malaria medication is a crucial part in prevention of malaria, but it must only be prescribed by your consulting physician so please consult your treating physician although the most common ant malarial drugs used worldwide are mentioned below:

Quinine sulfate

It is an anti malarial drug that is widely used to treat malaria and babesiosis. Quinine is toxic to the Plasmodium (malaria parasite) due to it interfering with the parasite’s ability to dissolve and metabolize hemoglobin.


Mefloquine is also highly recommended drug used to treat and prevent malaria. Except for those where parasites might have developed resistance to Mefloquine.  It is useful for the prevention of malaria in almost all areas.


Hydroxychloroquine is mostly used for chloroquine-sensitive malaria, treatment of lupus, porphyria cutanea tarda and rheumatoid arthritis.


Chloroquine  treats abd prevents malaria only in areas where malaria is sensitive to Chloroquine. As some types of malaria requires additional medications in order to cure the patient successfully.

The Making of a Tropical Disease: A Short History of Malaria 

If you wish to find out how this deadly parasite got where it is today, be sure to check “The Making of a Tropical Disease: A Short History of Malaria”